Kongadesam: a history of rulers
A personal venture into Kongu history by PonDheepankar K, M.A (D.U) . To be published as a book in the future in even more detail. The author belongs to the Panangadai (Elumathur kadai) kootam of Konga Vellala Gounder caste and is a resident of Erode. Feel free to contact for doubts, suggestions, queries and information on Kongas at PONDHEEPANKAR@GMAIL.COM
Rulers and dynasties of the Kongu region:
A. Prehistoric age:
When I questioned my grand father and the people of the generation about the dolmens and the inhabitants of our land, they would say:
There were a race of short people called "Pandi"s (different from the Pandyas, this one meaning "Pandu" or the primitive ones) who were also referred to by their shortness "Koola Pandi" These people were primitive people. The men were of the size of a "Padi" (weight measure) and women (Pandi Pondatti - Pandi's wife) was like "Pudi" (of a fist)Surveying the dolmens, we come to know that indeed they were not above 3' in heightThey "put the husk over the Cholam", meaning they domesticated/cultivated CholamThey ploughed with the Indian Hare unlike us who do it with bullocksThey were so proud and head high, that Eswaran (God), whom they never respected was informed by the crow of their nature and he sent a rain of mud which destroyed themThus there was a race of short and primitive people who had no elaborate religion and they got extinctThe dolmens (Pandi veedu), burial urns (Pandi moda) and menhirs and a few stories are what they left us.Still dwarfs are referred to by elders as "Koola Pandi" (as short as the Pandi)
I see an interesting parallel in the Lankan "Nittaewo" and the Flores island "Homo florensis", south and south east asia being the hotbed of human evolution. Could they have been descendants of the Vanaras (early hominids) mentioned in the Ramayana? Could they be the Kinnaras (Kim + Nara: or "what men?") of the epics?
B. Historic age:
These were supplanted by the Nagas (Irulas) who were trappers:
They are mentioned to be living in Irula "Pathis" or primitive hamlets, the historical one being Irugur near Coimbatore. They still live in good numbers around the periphery of Kongadesam, especially the Nilgiris. They still maintain a distinct way of primitive life and language. They are migratory people.
The native Veda or hunter tribe. Natives of Kurinji land, they are referred as narrators in Kuravanji literature. They are famed for their prowess in healing, medicines and magic. The original inhabitants of the hills, they are now nomadic after the government deprived them of their lands. Hunter - gatherers.
Also referred to as Eyinar of the Palai lands, their highwaymen nature earned their name, meaning mischief makers. Their sheep is a distinct breed. They still retain their nomadic lifestyle with periodic migrations in search of pastures. Their routes are hereditary. Pastoral shepherds.
The tribes who exclusively live in the mountains, removed from the dry plains are (The Silampan, Kodichi, Porunan, Verpan, Kanavar of Kurinji or mountainous lands) :
Malasar, Mala Malasar, Mudhuvar, Kadar (Anamalais)Kunnuvar, Paliyar (the former say they are immigrants from the Konga plains)Todar, Kothar (Latter say they migrated from Kollimalais - part of Malayala Gounders) Malaiyalis (Kollis and Shevaroys - they are migrants from Kanchi - in 16th cent.)Solagar, Malayalis (Talamalai ranges)
The above people all speak languages very different and usually classified as 'Tamil'.
The Vellalas who migrated here found deciduous and shrub forests (mentioned to be the time of the first Pallava, Adondan in 3461 BCE or the second Sangam age, from Kanchipuram. They did not exterminate the Irulans but created settlements for them and did not interfere in their earlier privileges, the ones which are religiously followed even today.
The current system of British modelled governance, sadly tries to exterminate their culture and assimilate them. See how this government website ridicules Irula's shifting sustenance agriculture which has been restricted: "Some are engaged in agriculture in the patta lands, conditionally assigned to them, where they have raised tea, coffee, jack trees, guava etc. However, due to their poor maintenance of their land due to lack of finance, the return from these lands is meager."
First Sangam (9140 BCE - 4700 CE):
At Then Madurai (Manalur).
Second Sangam (4700 BCE - 1000 BCE):
Pre-Kaliyugam(before 3102 BCE) (ref: Kongumandala satakam and Mahabharatam-Virataparvam) (system: highly decentral panchayat under local landlords , nominal central kings):
Kongu is called Matsyadesam and the capital is Ladapuram (Viratapuram or modern Dharapuram)
The father of Mahabharatam's Uttarakumaran and Uttarakumari who are named after Uttara Veeranarayana Perumal, the local Tirumal). They are instrumental in the Mahabharata offering refuge to the pandavas in thier court during their Agnyathavasam period and helping them to regroup and plan stratagies. He marries daughter Uttarakumari to Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. Kichakan of Keechakanur (Keeranur) is killed by Bhima.
King and aide of Arjuna
This is the period of the Second Sangam (4700 - 1000 BCE) at Kapatapuram (Korakai).
The time when Kongadesam was settled fleeing persecution (3461 BCE) during the time of Adondan, the first Tondaman (Pallavan)
Sangam age (1000 BCE - 825 CE. Source: Irayanar Akapporul) (system: Kongu nadu called Chera Nadu under decentral panchayats under local landlords called Velirs and Kizhars or the Vellala caste, nominal central kings):
Issued by : Sangam age Chera recovered from Karur Amaravati river bed , year: 1st Century BC.
Obv. : Elephant
Rev. :Bow-Arrow and ankush(below bow-arrow) with snake.
Weight : 3.48 gm (53.6 grain),
Diameter : 20X18 mm ,
Thickness : 2 mm
Reference : Metal : Ae alloy.,
Notes: This coin is as thin as Vira keralasya coin thickness.Sangam Age Tamil Coins, Krishnamurthy Pl-11, #130 extremely rare in chera category with lots of sangam age symbols such as yupa, snake, etc., The reverse is a bow-arrow and ankusha below. Obv is a Elephant - of Sangam age Pandya style of mahabalipuram
Cheras (capital:Karur (Vanji), ruling nearly the whole of modern Kongu - lineage - Cheran kootam) http://tamilartsacademy.com/books/roman%20karur/cover.html
Vanavan @ Vanavaramban [430-350 B.CE]
Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralathan [350-328 B.CE] ruled for 22 years
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 B.CE] ruled for 58 years
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 B.CE] ruled for 25 years
(Mentioned in Asokan inscription at Girnar:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka's_Major_Rock_Edicts#The_list_of_Major_Rock_edicts.5B3.5D (Major Rock Edict II)
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 B.CE] ruled for 25 years
Perumcheralathan [220-200 B.CE] ruled for 20 years
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 B.CE] ruled for 20 years
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 B.CE] ruled 55 years
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 B.CE] ruled 38 years
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 B.CE] ruled 25 years
Irumporai lineage, born out of wedlock between Chera and Sangam Chola's daughter Manakkilli, who were also called the Western Gangas:
From this age, the Cheras also were invited by the Nambudiris to rule Malayalam.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 B.CE] ruled 20 years
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 B.CE] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu)
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 B.CE] ruled 16 years
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 B.CE]
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [B.CE 20 – 10 A.D]
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 A.D]
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 A.D]
Kokothai Marban [[30 –60 A.D]
Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 A.D]
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 A.D]
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 A.D]
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 A.D]
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 A.D]
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 A.D]
Poorikko [220-250 A.D]
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 A.D]
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 A.D]
Mantharanj Cheral [330-380 A.D] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta and who built Natrayan koil at Vellakoil
Sathiyaputras (Adiyaman dynasty ruling Tagadur-Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts - lineage - Cheran kootam) referred as Satiyaputras from Asokan inscription in Guntur.
Oris (ruling Kollimalai region from Rasipuram, famous king Valvil Ori)
Malayaman Karis from Tirukoyiloor (rivals of Adiyaman and Cheras, probably the Kari kootam in Gounders of today, famous king Irumudi kari who was a rival of the Chozas)
Begans (ruling from Vaiyavoor or Pazhani which originally was called Vaiyapuri, famous king is Viyavoor Began)
Kumanan (ruling Kudiramalai region)
Killis (ruling the Mudiramalais)
Gattis of the Gatti mudalikkavundar lineage
These rulers were known for their benevolence and the Sangam poets were supported mostly by these. This is reflected in their verses. They are popularly called the ''Kadayezhuvallalkal'' or the last seven benevolent kings.
Rattas - (Kalabhiras or Kalachuri Abhiras, Buddhist-Jains, ruling from Dharapuram, ref:Kongudesarajakkal and Pandya- Ratta war inscription of the sixth cent. AD) (100 BCE to [Vassals of Salivahana (or)Satavahana Gautamiputra Satakarni] to 179 C.E) (Interregnum of cattle raiding and anti-Brahmana Kalabhiras from Oddiya/Odisha - the ancestors of the Kallars, Maravars and Vanniars):
Kalabhira Ratta coin, vassals of Salivahana/Satavahana era found in Karur Amaravathi river: Dinamalar R.Krishnamurthy
Gangas (restored Cheras or Irumporai Cheras) (179 - 894 CE)
(established at Dharapuram (Narayanur nadu) and later moved to Talakkad (Talakkadu) and Kuvalalapuram (Kolar) (system: decentral panchayats under local Gounder landlords called Gamundas of the Vellala and later Vettuvar castes, stronger central kings but marred with Kalabhra raids and later Vettuvars called in from Kalahasti to repel them)(see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Ganga_administration):
The Cheras are recollected as the progeny of Ikshvaku in Sangam literature, through Muchukunda and Dradavrata of Suryavamsam. The manuscripts of the Gangas also say so (E.C VII): "We may now proceed to consider the detailed account of the origin and genealogy of the Gangas as given in the following inscriptions — Sh. 10, 64, 57, 4, 39 and 56 (only the beginning), dating m the end of the 1lth and beginning of the 12th centuries. The most complete are the Purale and Kallurgudda stones (Sh. 64 and 4), of 1112 and 1122. Both begin with acknowledgement of the Chalukya sovereignty, after which the second gives an account of the Hoysalas to Narasimha. Then both continue alike, the former professing to give the Ikshvaku-vamsavataram and the latter the Ganga-vamsavatram, of which the following is a summary, from the latter.2 In Ayodhya-pura was born the head-jewel of the Ikshvaku race, HariSchandra (according to Sh- IO, the son of Dhananjaya, —capturer of Kanyakubja, —and Gaudhari-Devi), who ruled in peace for a long time. His son was Bharata, whose wife was Vijaya-mahadevi. When the longing of pregnancy arose in her, she went to bathe in the Ganges and recovered her brightness. In due time she bore a son, who from the above circumstance was named Gaujadatta. He in turn had a son Bharata, whose son was again Gaiigadatta, whose son was Harischandra. His son was another Bharata, whose son was also Gaiigadatta. While the Gatiga line was thus continuing, there arose in it a king named Vishnugupta, who gained an empire and ruled from Ahichchhatra-pura, where he performed the Aindra-dhvaja-puja, and Devendra being pleased thereat gave him Airavata (his elephant, regent elephant of the east). To Vishnugupta and his wife Prithvimati were born the sons Bhagadatta and Sridatta. To the former the father gave Kaliuga, which he ruled in peace as Kalinga Ganga. To Sridatta he gave the ancestral kingdom and the elephant, which thenceforward was adopted as a crest. Then there arose in his family Priyabandku or Priyabandhuvarmma, to Actually the earliest which in much superior in creation, the characters in tliese Shimoga inscriptions. being small and cramped. Indra, pleased with his faith, gave five ornaments (or tokens), saying—“If in your line any who countenance falsehood (or a false faith) should arise, they (the ornaments) will disappear.” And giving to Ahichchhatra the name of Vijayapura, Devendra departed. The Ganga line continued to flourish, and in it, to the king Kampa was born a son named Padmanabha. The latter, distressed at having no sons, brought Padmaprabha’s sdsam-d^vali into his power, and thus obtained two sons, whom he named Rama and Lakshmana. At tbis juncture, Mahipala, ruler of Ujjayini-pura, attacked Padmanabha, demanding the five ornaments. Padmanabha indignantly replied that it was as impossible for him to part with them as for Mahipala to wear them, and added a defiant message. Meanwhile, taking counsel with his ministers, he sent his sons away, with his younger sister a Virgin, and forty-eight chosen Brahmans. And as they were going to the South, he gave to Rama and Lakshmana the names Dadiga and Madhava.
Issued by : Gangas of Talakad (Elephant Gadyana/Varaha/Pagoda) specimens. , year: 11 to 12th century
Obv. : Caparisoned Elephant facing right. Legend Pa Da above in kannada.
Rev. :floral decorative scroll
Weight : 3.4 gms , Diameter : 13-15 mm ,
Reference : Mitch-702
Metal : Gold.,
Notes: Anonymous issue.
The following were names of Irumporai Cheras above mentioned:
Konganivarman Madhava Mahadhirayan
Pushkara or Kokkararayan
Pruthvi Kongani Mahadhirayan
Rajamalla Devarayan (Also called Cheraman Perumal Nayanar or Kalarirrarivar Nayanar who went to Kailasam with Sundaramoorthi Nayanar in 825 CE)
The collapse of the Chera dynasty after this saw the invasion of Oddiya (Odiya) Kalabhras and the subsequent defeat of them by the Pandyas with the aid of imported Vaduga Veduvar from Poddapi Nadu through Kalahasti, descandants of Kannappa Nayanar. This is the time of cattle stealing, counter raids and hero-stones. One of them is the temple of Annamar at Veerappur (Ponnar Sankar), their grandfather who was a migrant from Chera Konga country to Valanadu. The Annamar were later appointed by the later Cholas Aditya Karikala and Rajaraja I as protectors (Nattar) of Konadu.
Later Cholas (894 - 1238 CE) (system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords called Velirs, Vettuvars and Kizhars strong central kings, Satrap called "Kongu Cholas" instituted. Konga people who fled the region during interregnum resettled in newly cleared areas):
Rajaraja built "Keralantaka gopuram" to commemorate the defeat of Talakkadu Gangas at Mudikondam in 1004 CE. He split erstwhile Gangavadi 96000 into three:
1. Chola Kerala Mandalam (Kongadesam)
2. Mudikonda Chola Mandalam (Karnatadesam)
3. Nigarili Chola Mandalam
Aditya Chola I
Parantaka Chola I
Aditya Chola II
Rajaraja Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola II
Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola II
Rajaraja Chola II
Rajadhiraja Chola II
Kulothunga Chola III
Rajaraja Chola III
The Narkudi 8000 western and southern Aru Nadu Konga Vellalas of today who had fled Konga country to Chola, Nadu and Tondai countries during the Kalabhra interregnum are resettled in Vettuvar Kanis under the leadership of Kodumbalur Velan (Sevur Pala Vellalar Pattagar) with the Tentisai leader of the 8000 Irumbidarthalayar (Sankarandampalayam Venadudayar) after Kulottunga II (1122 - 1150) catalysed by Kambar's rivalry. Also Pala Vellalas, Padathalai, Narambukatti Vellalas settled alongwith Choliya Gurukkal and other service castes. For more on this Chola period settlement and the original inhabitants, read:
Hoysala- Pandya feud (1238 - 1343) (system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords called Vallalas, strong central kings) (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_the_Hoysala_Empire and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysala_administration ):
Issued by : Hoysalas of Belur (11th-14th Century) , year: c. 12th century
Obv. : Garuda standing facing, head turned right, lamp right
Rev. :Vishnu with four attributes - Gadha,Padma,Shanku and Chakra
Diameter : 6 mm ,
Reference : None Metal : Gold.,
Notes: Hoysala fanam. Provenance:Hasan,Karnataka. Unpublished fanam.
Veera Ballalarayan II (1173 – 1220)
Vira Narasimharayan II (1220 – 1235)
Vira Someshwararayan (1235 – 1254)
Narasimharayan III (1254 – 1291)
Veera Ballalarayan III (1292 – 1343)
The Cholas try dismantling the Ganga administration by creating a satrapy called by historians, the Rsabhagiri Cholas or Kongu Cholas and name Chera Desam as "Chola Kerala Mandalam" in vain. The Gavunda-Manigar system of Gangas has survived to this day. Kongu Cholas lose territory steadily to Hoysalas reemerging with the help of Ganga vassals.
Sundaravarman Kulasekaran II (1238–1240)
Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238–1251)
Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268)
Maaravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1310)
Sundara Pandyan IV (1309–1327)
Vira Pandyan IV (1309–1345)
Pandyas retreat to Kayathar after Kafur and subsequent Vijayanagar Nayak.
Raids by Muslims under Malik Kafur, Delhi Khilji sultan Ala-ud-din's general, destabilising the Hoysalas and the culture. Rapes, murders, looting and destruction of temples and cities by Muslims.
The then Sringeri Sankaracharya, Vidyaranya to save south India, devised the Vijayanagar empire.
Vijayanagara period (1336-1646)(system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords as Palaiyakkarars and newly settled Palayapattus with strong central kings and Naykar scribes for tax collection ). This region fell under Madurai Nayaks:
Kongunadu under Vijayanagara empire
Issued by : Krishnadevaraya (1509-1530) , year: Krishna Devaraya. 1509-1529AD Obv. : Balakrishna (Baby Krishna) Seated with butter pulp in right hand. Conch and Chakra at sides. Rev. :Three line Nagari legend, Sree Pra / ta pa Krishna / ra ja. Weight : 3.4 gm , Diameter : 12 mm , Reference : None. Metal : Gold., Mint Details: Tadapatri mint. ,Unknown coins minted... Notes: In general KrishnaDevaRaya pagodas and half pagodas are common.
Harihara Raya I (1336-1356)
Bukka Raya I (1356-1377)
Harihara Raya II (1377-1404)
Virupaksha Raya (1404-1405)
Bukka Raya II (1405-1406)
Deva Raya I (1406-1422)
Ramachandra Raya (1422)
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya (1422-1424)
Deva Raya II (1424-1446)
Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465)
Virupaksha Raya II (1465-1485)
Praudha Raya (1485)
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485-1491)
Thimma Bhupala (1491)
Narasimha Raya II (1491-1505)
Tuluva Narasa Nayaka (1491-1503)
Viranarasimha Raya (1503-1509)
Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529)
Achyuta Deva Raya (1529-1542)
Sadashiva Raya (1542-1570)
Aliya Rama Raya (1542-1565)
Tirumala Deva Raya (1565-1572)
Sriranga I (1572-1586)
Venkata II (1586-1614)
Sriranga II (1614-1614)
Venkata III (1632-1642)
Sriranga III (1642-1646)
Madurai Nayak rulers:
Viswanatha Nayak 1529–1563
Kumara Krishnappa Nayak 1563–1573
Joint Rulers Group I 1573–1595
Joint Rulers Group II 1595–1602
Muttu Krishnappa Nayak 1602–1609
Muttu Virappa Nayak 1609–1623
Tirumalai Nayak 1623–1659
Muthu Alakadri Nayak 1659–1662
Chokkanatha Nayak 1662–1682
After 1667 Erode war, Madurai Nayaks, vassals of Vijayanagar lose Kongu to Mysore.
Mysore Kingdom (1646-1799) - Wodeyar Dynasty (system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords as Palaiyakkarars, called Vellalas with strong central kings and Naykar scribes for tax collection ):
Ruler : Kantirava Narasa Raja Wodeyar Year : 1638 - 1662 AD Unit : Fanam, Gold, 5 mm, 0.34gm Obverse : Narasimha in Yogabandha mudhra hands on his knees Reverse : "Sri, Kamti rava Reference : MCSI1 910, C
Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar
Narasaraja Wodeyar II
Krishnaraja Wodeyar I
Chamaraja Wodeyar VII
Krishnaraja Wodeyar II
Krishnaraja Wodeyar II
Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII
Chamaraja Wodeyar IX
Muslim (Turukkar) rule (breaking up of Kongu and accession to British) (system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords, called Vellalas with strong central kings and Muslim scribes for tax collection )
Issue: Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu.
Mint: Nagar Date AM 1224.
Weight 11 Gms. Elephant facing left.
Hyder Ali (1749-1782)
Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu, (1782-1799)
Third Anglo-Mysore War: Salem Baramahals and Dindigul (comprising modern Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Vellore (Tirupattur tk.) districts given by Tippu to British after Third mysore war)
British map of territories lost by Tippu to them after the Third war.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War: Coimbatore district (comprising modern Coimbatore, Ooty, Erode, Karur and Kollegal dists.)
Palaiyakkarar rule (system: decentral panchayat under local Gounder landlords, called Vellalars with strong central palayakkarar) :
Dheeran Chinnamalai Theerthagiri Gounder (Palayakottai), Varanavasi Gounder (Elumathur), Vella Gounder (Nasiyanur), Kumara Vellai (Ulagapuram -Vellodu) and others co-ordinating the North-South resistance under Dundaji Wagh.
British map of the territories lost by Tippu after his death and Dheeran Chinnamalai and reorganisation under Madras presidency.
Direct British rule (1805 - 1920) (Merger with Tamilnadu plains for the first time in history) (Centralised power structure, loss of local Orr Gounders' rule, zamindari under new set loyal Gounders)
Issue: British Coin, denomination: one rupee,Year:1898,metal: mint
Chief Ministers of Madras Presidency (1920- 1947)Merger with Tamilnadu plains for the first time in history) (Centralised power structure, partial regain of local rule, zamindari under local Gounders)
A. Subbarayalu (17 December 1920-11 July 1921) Justice Party
Panagal Raja (11 July 1921-3 December 1926) Justice Party
P. Subbarayan (4 December 1926 -27 October 1930) Unaffiliated
P. Munuswamy Naidu(27 October 1930-4 November 1932) Justice Party
Ramakrishna Ranga Rao(5 November 1932-4 April 1936) Justice Party
P. T. Rajan (4 April 1936-24 August 1936) Justice Party
Ramakrishna Ranga Rao (24 August 1936-April 1937) Justice Party
Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu (1 April 1937-14 July 1937) Justice Party
C. Rajagopalachari (14 July 1937-29 October 1939) Indian National Congress
Tanguturi Prakasam (30 April 1946-23 March 1947) Indian National Congress
Post Indian 'Independence' (Commonwealth dominion) Chief Ministers of Madras Presidency (1947-1950)(Totally centralised power structure, partial regain of local rule, zamindari abolished thereby total loss of power at local level)
O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar (23 March 1947-6 April 1949) Indian National Congress
P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja (6 April 1949-26 January 1950) Indian National Congress
Issue: Government of India.
Denominatiom: naya paisa, one paisa.
Cheif Ministers of Madras State (Tamil region) (Totally centralised power structure, loss of power at local level)
P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja (26 January 1950-9 April 1952) Indian National Congress
C. Rajagopalachari(10 April 1952-13 April 1954) Indian National Congress
K. Kamaraj (13 April 1954-31 March 1957) Indian National Congress
K. Kamaraj (13 April 1957-1 March 1962) Indian National Congress
K. Kamaraj (15 March 1962-2 October 1963) Indian National Congress
M. Bakthavatsalam (2 October 1963-6 March 1967) Indian National Congress
C. N. Annadurai(6 March 1967-14 January 1969) DMK
Chief Ministers of Tamilnadu (1969-present) (Totally centralised power structure, loss of power at local level) :
C. N. Annadurai(14 January 1969-3 February 1969) DMK
V.R. Nedunchezhiyan (acting)(3 February 1969-10 February 1969) DMK
M. Karunanidhi(10 February 1969-4 January 1971) DMK
M. Karunanidhi (15 March 1971-31 January 1976) DMK, President's rule (31 January 1976-30 June 1977)
M. G. Ramachandran(30 June 1977-17 February 1980) AIADMK, President's rule(17 February 1980-9 June 1980)
M. G. Ramachandran (9 June 1980-15 November 1984) AIADMK
M. G. Ramachandran(10 February 1985-24 December 1987) AIADMK
V.R. Nedunchezhiyan (acting)(24 December 1987-7 January 1988) AIADMK
Janaki Ramachandran(7 January 1988-30 January 1988) AIADMK, President's rule (30 January- 1988
27 January 1989)
M. Karunanidhi (27 January 1989-30 January 1991)DMK, President's rule (30 January 1991-24 June 1991)
J. Jayalalithaa(24 June 1991-12 May 1996) AIADMK
M. Karunanidhi (13 May 1996-13 May 2001) DMK
J. Jayalalithaa (14 May 2001-21 September 2001) AIADMK
O. Panneerselvam (21 September 2001-1 March 2002) AIADMK
J. Jayalalithaa (2 March 2002-12 May 2006) AIADMK
M. Karunanidhi (13 May 2006-incumbent) DMK
The assembly constituencies of Tamilnadu and Kongunadu.
Politics in Kongunadu today:
Kongunadu has nearly 70 assembly constituencies out of the total 234. This region has been economically strong but politically vwry weak because disunity among the majority Gounders.
Today Gounders who are estimated to be the single largest caste in Tamilnadu of about 70-80 lakhs are represented only in 23/65 assembly constituencies. This is radically opposite to the 30/30 and 4 important ministers in the Rajaji berth. (The only caste given 4 ministers by the great Rajaji , not even Brahmins as he used to say Gounders are very honest). There are only two ministers now with dummy portfolios. Thevars have 30/38 MLAs and 4 ministers with strategic portfolios, Vanniars have 50/60 MLAs with 3 strategic ministeries in their respective areas. Central MP position is even bad 5/11 constituencies and no central ministers from the community while Vanniars and Thevars have 3 strategic ministers each. Gounders are thus all set to lose their status within the next 10 years. Today there are many letterhead parties like KMK, KIP, KVGP doing just votebank politics and nothing else.
Kongumandala satakam, (T) by Valasundarakavirayar, Ed. Deivasikhamani Gaunder, Coimbatore, 1971
Karavur Puranam, Ed. S.K. Ramarajan and T.V. Ramaswami Pillai, Madras, 2nd Edition, 1984
Roman Karur, Dr.R.Nagaswamy , Brahadish Publications, 1995
Kongu Velalar Varalaru, S.A.R.Chinnusamy Gounder, Muthunarayanan Printers, Erode, 2nd Edition, 1982
Komaralingam copperplates, Dr. R.Nagaswamy, publication and date unknown
Kongadesarajakkal, Government Manuscript Library, Chennai
For learning more on the native administrative system of Kongadesam: kongupattakarars.blogspot.com